Declensions of the German adjective


Declension of adjectives.

The adjective in german is positioned before the noun and takes the endings that depend on the gender, number and case of the noun.

Declension of the attributive adjective:

Situation I:

- when the adjective is preceded by the definite articles: der, die, das

- when the adjective is preceded by the articles: den, dem, des

  den (accusative case - singular - masculine or  dative case - plural)

•  dem (dative case - singular - masculine and neuter)

•  des (genitive case - singular - masculine and neuter)

 

Case

masculine

gender

feminine gender

neuter

gender

plural

Nominative

der große Mann

die schöne Frau

das kleine Kind

die blauen Anzüge

Accusative

den großen Mann

die schöne Frau

das kleine Kind

die blauen Anzüge

Dative

dem großen Mann

der schönen Frau

dem kleinen Kind

den blauen Anzügen

Genitive

des großen Mannes

der schönen Frau

des kleinen Kindes

der blauen Anzüge

Remember: Genitive case - singular number - masculine and neuter gender noun receives the ending "-es". Dative case - plural number - the noun (regardless of the gender) receives the ending "-en" or only "-n"

Summarily (Situation I), the endings of the adjectives according to gender, number and case:

Case

masculine gender

feminine gender

neuter gender

plural

Nominative

-e

-e

-e

-en

Accusative

-en

-e

-e

-en

Dative

-en

-en

-en

-en

Genitive

-en

-en

-en

-en

Situation II:

Adjectives preceded by:

- indefinite article: ein, eine, ein

- denied indefinite article: kein, keine, kein

- possessive pronoun: mein, dein, sein, ihr etc.

- the words: irgendein, solchein, manchein, welchein

Case

masculine gender

feminine

gender

neuter

gender

plural

Nominative

ein alter Mann

eine schöne Frau

ein kleines Kind

meine guten Eltern

Accusative

einen alten Mann

eine schöne Frau

ein kleines Kind

meine guten Eltern

Dative

einem alten Mann

einer schönen Frau

einem kleinen Kind

meinen guten Eltern

Genitive

eines alten Mannes

einer schönen Frau

eines kleinen Kindes

meiner guten Eltern

 

Remember: Genitive case - singular number - masculine and neuter gender noun gets the ending "-es".

Summarily (Situation II), the endings of the adjectives according to gender, number and case:

Case

masculine gender

feminine gender

neuter gender

plural

Nominative

-er

-e

-es

-en

Accusative

-en

-e

-es

-en

Dative

-en

-en

-en

-en

Genitive

-en

-en

-en

-en

Situation III:

- adjectives which are not preceded by an article or pronoun but have the endings of the article

- adjectives preceded by: einige, wenige, viele, mehrere, andere, verschiedene. (this applies only for plural)

 

Case

masculine gender

feminine

gender

neuter

gender

plural

-------------------

Nominative

alter Mann

junge Frau

großes Haus

gute Eltern

Accusative

alten Mann

junge Frau

großes Haus

gute Eltern

Dative

altem Mann

junger Frau

großem Haus

guten Eltern

Genitive

alten Mannes

junger Frau

großen Hauses

guter Eltern

 

Remember: Genitive case - singular number - masculine and neuter gender noun receives the ending "-es".

Summarily (Situation III), the endings of the adjectives according to gender, number and case:

Case

masculine gender

 feminine gender

neuter gender

plural

Nominative

-er

-e

-es

-e

Accusative

-en

-e

-es

-e

Dative

-em

-er

-em

-en

Genitive

-en

-er

-en

-er

Helping questions for determining the cases:

Nominative case: (wer?), (was?), - The subject of a sentence, that which carries out the action

Accusative case: (wen?) who?,  (was?) what? - The direct object, that which is acted upon; (wohin?) where to? where from?

Dative case. (wem?) to who?, whom? (wo?) where?

Genitive case. (wessen?) whose?

Examples (Situation I):

> Die Schauspieler sind ferting für den großen Auftritt. (The actors are ready for the big show.)

Accussative case.

> Die Tasche gehört der schönen Frau. (The pocket belongs to the beautiful woman.)

Dative case.

> Die Kinder spielen in dem schönen Garten. (The children play in the beautiful garden.) 

Dative case.

> Die Vegetation des großen Parkes ist sehr schön. (The vegetation of the big park in very beautiful.)

Genitive case.

 

Examples (Situation II):

> Ich habe alles meinen guten Eltern zu bedanken. (I thank my good parents for everything.)

Dative case. (plural)

> Ich habe meine Jacke einem armen Mann gegeben. (I gave my Jacket to a poor man) 

Dative case.

> Ich esse einen grünen Apfel. (I am eating a green apple.)

Accusative case.

> Die Katze einer alten Frau wurde verschwunden. (An old woman's cat disappeared.)

Genitive case.

 

Examples (Situation III):

> Zwei kleine Kinder spielen im Park. (Two small children are playing in the park.) 

Nominative case. (plural)

> Beim lesen des Buches habe ich wenige neue Sachen gelernt. (I didn't learn too much by reading the book.)

Nominative case. (plural)

> Bei uns im Garten findest du frisches Obst. (In our garden you can find fresh fruits.)

Accusative case.

etc.